American Revolution Summary(1765-83)
American Revolution Summary– The American Revolution became a colonial insurrection that passed off between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots within the Thirteen Colonies gained independence from Great Britain, becoming the US of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with France and others.
Causes of American Revolution Summary
1. Mercantile Capitalism:
Placed trade barriers in colonies establishing a monopoly of British companies on trade done by the colonies prevented by Americans from developing their indigenous Industry, also Americans were forced to fund the British growth in iron works and Textile Industries.
2. Proclamation of 1763:
The British Parliament issues a “Proclamation of 1763” which banned the expansion of US settlers to the west which was reserved for native American Indians. The American settlers who had fought in the 7 years war along the British with the purpose of westward expansion felt cheated and thus ignored this proclamation.
3. Enlightenment thinkers as catalysts:
The enlightenment thinkers proposed ideas like self-government, natural rights of man, reason or logical thinking, natural laws of motion, liberalism, republicanism, an idea of the democratic form of governance, the liberty which culminated the thought of the right to overthrow a regime which was against the above said principles.
4. War expenditure recovery:
The cost of war was made up by taxing the people in British colonies in North America.
5. Cry for Representation:
The British Stamp Act of 1765, which imposed stamp taxes on all business transactions in British colonies in the USA opposed by American leaders, the right of Britain to levy taxes on them were the leaders of the colonies adopted the slogan, “no taxation without representation”. British withdrew all taxes as a result of the above cry except on tea, the tax on tea was not very high, but it was not withdrawn by British just to retain their right to levy the tax in US colonies. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was a protest against this tea tax. A ship carrying tea was anchored in Boston port and when was ordered to unload, the white settlers dressed as American Indians destroyed all the tea by offloading all the containers into the tea, which infuriated British. Boston port was closed and intolerable acts of 1774were passed.
6. Philadelphia Congress: The first continental congress in Philadelphia 1774 led the American representatives to proclaim the Declaration of Independence of 1776 drafted by Thomas Jefferson which had the following points:
7. All men are created equal and are endowed by their creation certain inalienable rights like the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
8. Republicanism: i.e. the principle that people are a source of authority and it is their right to set up their own government.
9. Independence: That is American colonies oppressed by British Government ought to be “free and independent states” which clearly shows the idea of the development of US federation.
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American Revolution Summary (War of Independence 1775):
- British confronted by American colonies, was aided by France, Spain and Dutch republic secretly. In 1777 Britain tried to encircle the Americans by invading from Canada which was a failure and proved to be a turning point in favor of Americans after which France entered the war openly in 1778.
- Spanish army expelled the British army from Florida. In 1783, the British commando Cornwallis surrendered before the arms led by George Washington ending the American war of Independence by signing the second treaty of Paris 1783.
Second Treaty of Paris
- Perpetual peace between USA and Britain
- All US colonies were recognized as free, independent, sovereign states, with Britain giving up all claims on Government, property, and territory.
- The US would give confiscated lands to loyalists.
- Spain signed with Britain and it got back Florida.
Impact of American Revolution
- American Revolution established the first democratic republic in the world and soon embarked on Industrial Revolution which expanded its territory westward. The USA came up with first written republic constitution in 1789.
- The bill of rights is the set of first ten amendments which secured to the citizens the important rights such as freedom of speech, press, religion, and justice under the law.
- The most important contribution was the culmination of ideas of liberty, equality, fundamental rights, nationalism, and anti-colonialism.
- The republic was not truly democratic as the women, the blacks, and the native Americans did not get the right to vote.
- Slavery was a blot on the principle of equality between northern and southern states.
- The US constitution focused on only those who held the property who were given all of the promised rights.
- The idea of equality with no special privileges to nobility was radical at a time when much of the world was under feudalism.
- The idea of no taxation on the property was novel in those times.
- Thus American Revolution was a revolution in ideas and system of polity and it impacted the future events the most prominent being the French Revolution of 1789.