General Knowledge

What are the types of Cancer starting with Alphabet – A?

Cancer is a disease which involves abnormal growth of Cell in various parts of our body. Throughout our life, a cell will divide and replace in controlled activity but in the case of Cancer, the cell division will be uncontrollable which often forms lumps or cysts.

There are various types of Cancer that affect our organs which are named after the organ the cancer is affected.

Cancer Starting with Alphabet – A

1) Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

This type of cancer belongs to an oral cancer group where it is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm which starts from secretory glands where the most common part which gets affected is the salivary gland, this type is defined as distinctive histologic appearance.

Cancer also arises in various origins like trachea, skin, breast and sweat/tear glands. It is not noticeable at the beginning where it tends to spread to other organs as it spreads growing slowly.

Symptoms: Include a small lump in salivary glands which are noticeable and do not hurt, there might be a small pain in swallowing food or might voice can sound hoarse. This type of cancer can also spread to nerves which might have some pain in the face.

Diagnosis: It can be noticed where your doctor takes a biopsy where a small sample of the tumor is taken via a small cut. These kinds of a tumor can take different form where it can be solid or round, hollow like a tube where it tends to grow faster.

The size and location of the tumor can be noticed by MRI, CT Scan and PET scan where the cancer images can be taken and diagnosed.

Treatment: The usual treatment includes radiation treatment, surgery. During surgery, the doctor will remove the surrounding healthy tissues to make sure cancer hasn’t spread across.

As this type of cancer spreads through nerves there might be additional check-up involving neurons where the doctor also checks for potential cancerous tissue.

Sometimes part of the windpipe/vocal box has to be removed as this tumor cannot be removed completely. To make sure the tumor hasn’t spread, the surgeon can also focus an external beam of the light/proton to the surrounding part of cancer which makes tumors shrink.

After the treatment, there should be regular checkups so that there is no additional region cancer has spread and also to look out for potential growth of tumors during the resting phase.

2) Adrenal Cancer

This type of cancer affects Adrenal Glands, these glands are situated above kidneys. These cancers are part of Neuroendocrine Tumors(NET) which can be formed at different hormone-producing glands in the body.

These cancers are hard to spot early which makes it difficult to diagnose. You can get Adrenal cancer in either of the 2 glands or for both the glands. The tumors usually begin with the outer layer of adrenal called Cortex and grow into a middle part called medula.

Symptoms: Include pain in the stomach region or sense of being full, also if there is a spike in the hormone which in-turn is noticeable by sudden weight gain, weakness, or high blood pressure.

Adrenal glands affect things such as hair growth, blood pressure and help to handle stress, if you notice any changes then it is better to consult your doctor.

As this cancer grows there might be at some point these can press against other organs which in turn can be noticed by a sharp pain in the abdominal area.

Adrenal glands tumors can also affect by abnormal hair growth, a spike in the production of androgen and estrogen which are male and female hormones respectively.

Cancer can produce its own hormone which in-turn can be noticed with less mood to work, weaker bones/muscle and mood swings. High BP/ Diabetes is also possible.

Diagnosis Adrenal Cancer can be diagnosed based on a symptom where your doctor can ask for various tests such as.

  • Physical/Medical history
  • Blood/Urine test
  • An imaging test such as MRI, PET Scan
  • Laparoscopy and Biopsy.

Treatment: Once your doctor diagnoses for cancer there are the various treatment that can cure Adrenal cancer such as:

Surgery – This type of treatment where the doctor will remove the adrenal gland depending on which gland it is affected and also nearby lymph nodes for possible spread of the cancerous tumor.

Radiation – These kinds of therapy include placing a radioactive seed/capsule near the tumor cell which beams photons and destroys the cancer cell. These therapies are done once there is surgery.

Tumor Ablation – This method used to heat or cold waves which kill tumor cells if they have returned, this treatment is conducted when the body does not support surgery or radiation therapy.

Medication – Doctor may prescribe anti-hormone drugs or chemotherapy drugs where it attacks hormonal glands and makes them produce fewer hormones, also fights cancer cells for the affected gland.

3) Anal Cancer

This type of cancer affects Anus which is opening towards the end of the rectum. These kinds of cancer come under the type of Colo-rectal cancer. These kinds of cancer can be noticed early and can be treated once they are diagnosed early.

Anal cancer usually affects people over age 50 however based on the diet it might affect early. Anal infection from unsafe sexual practices that caused HPV infection, genital warts and HIV are major risk factors for Anal Cancer.

Symptoms: The most common symptom of Anal Cancer is bleeding. Other sign includes Pain or pressure in the anal area, unusual discharge, change in bowel habits and lumps.

Diagnosis: Anal cancer can be diagnosed by digital rectal examination, anoscopy, proctoscopy, or endorectal ultrasound. If cancer is detected in these examinations, for further confirmation a biopsy can be conducted. Other diagnoses include CT Scan, MRI and PET Scan.

Treatment: These kinds of cancer can be treated early when detected, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the most common types of treatment provided.

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