Continuing our series on listing out Cancer alphabetically today, we explain to you the types of Cancer starting from the alphabet E.

1) Endometrial Cancer


Cancer that affects Endometrium is called Endometrial Cancer. The endometrium is a special tissue that is lining the Uterus. Most cancers that are caused in the uterus are Endometrial Cancers.

Cancer that causes this is slow and can be treated if diagnosed early however if left untreated the same can spread to the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and other organs.

The risk factors of endometrial cancer are:

a) Women who have diabetes, high blood pressure.
b) They affect women who are past their menopause
c)Obesity
d)Haven’t given birth to a child or have a history of infertility, irregular periods.
e) Having a family history of cancer.
f) Women who take drugs for birth control, treatment of other forms of cancer have the risk of contacting endometrial cancer.

The Symptoms of Endometrial cancer include

a) Abnormal Vaginal bleeding might be irregular before menopause, however, if the patient is on Hormone Replacement Therapy and this may cause vaginal bleeding post menopause which needs to be checked by the doctor to confirm if it is not endometrial cancer.

b) Vaginal Discharge

c) Difficulty while urinating

d) Pain during intercourse

e) Weight loss

f) Pain in abdomen and weak lower abdomen

Diagnosis

Endometrial Cancer can be diagnosed by the Pap Smear test which is used to detect cervical cancer, also can be diagnosed by blood and urine test.

Transvaginal Ultrasound is another method to detect Endometrial Cancer where the doctor inserts a wand-like instrument into the vagina. The instrument emits high-frequency sound waves and when they hit the uterus walls, a sound pattern is formed.

From this sound pattern, a picture can be noticed where you can get to know if there are symptoms of Endometrial Cancer. This method is called sonohystogram

i) Dilation and curettage (D&C)

In this method, there are 2 steps, the first one is dilation where the doctor with the help of an instrument called laminaria widens the opening of the uterus.

And curettage process involves the scrapping of the lining of uterus walls from a spoon-shaped device called a curette, also the doctor might use the cannula to extract some of the contents from the uterus. The sample is then sent to the lab for further examination.

ii) Endometrial Biopsy

It’s the same method as Dilation and curettage however the doctor might spray or inject pain killer liquid which will help to collect some samples from the endometrium where it will be sent to the lab for further analysis.

Treatment: Endometrial Cancer is treated by

a) Surgery: This is a standard method of treating Endometrial Cancer where if the cancer is not spread to other organs this treatment is effective.

This method involves hysterectomy where the uterus, cervix, ovaries and fallopian tubes are surgically removed. Additionally, any suspicious lymph nodes are also biopsied and removed to prevent cancer from returning back.

b) Radiation: This is done after surgery if cancer is found to have spread beyond the uterus. Radiation along with chemotherapy is recommended to destroy other cancer cells and prevent it from returning back

c) Hormone Therapy: This is recommended using progesterone where it gradually reduces cancer growth and also reduces the size of tumour, this helps in easily removing the tumors and preventing cancer from spreading to other parts of the human body.

2) Esophageal Cancer


Esophageal Cancer affects when cancer develops in the esophagus. The esophagus is a tube-like structure that runs down from throat to the stomach and which helps in easy passage of food particles.

Cancer starts from the inner lining of the esophagus and then spreads to other parts and this forms esophageal cancer.

There are 2 types of Esophageal cancer:

a) Squamous Cell Carcinoma: cancer affects squamous cells that are the inner lining of the tube. This runs down the entire section of the esophagus.

b) Adenocarcinoma: This develops over the glands of the esophagus which is present towards the end connecting to the stomach.

The symptoms of Esophageal Cancer include

  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • Pain in chest, abdomen
  • Weight loss
  • Coughing
  • Indigestion
  • Heartburn

Diagnosis: Esophageal Cancer can be diagnosed by

a) Barium Swallow X-Ray: This involves X-Ray where you drink a liquid and this liquid coats the esophageal walls. When an X-ray is undertaken, it helps in the easy detection of cancer.

b) Endoscopy: This is the technique where the doctor inserts a lighted tube into the esophagus. This produces Ultrasound waves that provide more information about the extent of cancer that has spread across the esophagus.

c) Biopsy: This involves a small collection of tissue that your doctor takes and takes the same to the lab for further examination.

d) CT Scan, PET scan, Laparoscopy are other methods where cancer can be detected.

The esophagus cancer can be classified in stages

Stage 0: Abnormal Cells are lined across the walls of the esophagus.

Stage I: Cancer cells are found in the layers of esophageal cells.

Stage II: Cancer has spread across the inner lining and has spread to the muscles of the esophagus. Also, there might be traces of cancer that might have been spread to lymph nodes nearby.

Stage III: Cancer has spread across the muscle layer and connecting tissues. Also, it might have spread to surrounding organs.

Stage IV: Advanced stage of cancer where it would have spread to organs far from the esophagus.

Treatment: Esophageal Cancer can be treated by the following methods.

  • Surgery: The affected part or complete esophagus might be removed.
  • Radiation: Radiation is used to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: Drugs might be provided to attack cancer cells, this might be done before surgery to help in easy removal of tumor cells.
  • Targeted therapy: treatments are provided just to target cancer cells.
  • Photodynamic Therapy uses laser light to target cancer cells.
  • Electrocoagulation: use of electric current to kill cancer cells.
  • Cryotherapy: Use cold to freeze cancer cells and destroy them.