India is the melting pot of different races and tribes. Almost all the main races in the world are present in the country. According to BS Guhu, the following 6 main races are found in India.
Different Racial Groups of India
1) The Negrito
The Negrites belong to several different ethnic groups who live in isolated areas of Southeast Asia.
Their current populations include the Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands, the Semang and Batek peoples of Peninsular Malaysia, the Maniq peoples of southern Thailand and the Aeta peoples, the Ati and other 30 officially recognized ethnic groups in the Philippines.
- Short stature
- Bulbous forehead
- Broad flat-nose
- Slightly protruding jaws
- Black skin color
They are considered the first occupants of the country. Traces of this group are found in the tribes of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and in the Kadar and Pulian tribes of peninsular India.
They hunt for their livelihood and some are also involved in agriculture for occupation.
2) The Proto-Australoids
Present Africa was occupied by these Proto-Australoids, they probably came to India soon after the Negritos. The population lives in the hilly regions and forest areas of central and southern India.
- Black skin color
- Wavy to curly hair
- Broad and flat nose
- Short stature
- Prognathous jaws
Some anthropologists believe that Proto-Australoids helped the Mediterranean build the Indus Valley civilization. Apart from Wolly hair, they look similar to the Negrites.
Many anthropologists believe their original homeland is considered as China and later covered the areas in Malaya peninsula and Indonesia of the south.
- Light brown skin color
- Fewer body hairs
- Broad face with pronounced cheekbones
- Slanting eyes and medium stature
Their descendants are seen in the hilly tribes of North-East India, Sikkim and Ladakh.
There is also evidence of a Mongolian Melanesian intrusion from Oceania in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Currently, they occupy large areas in Ladakh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and other parts of north-eastern India.
The Mongoloid racial stock is divided into 2 sub-groups as follow:
The Palaeo-Mongoloids further divided into sub-categories with broad-head and long-head. They are found along the Himalayas in Asom and on the Myanmar border.
The name itself reveals that they have come from the Tibetian region and are mostly living in Bhutan, Sikkim, and the North-Western Himalayas.
4) The Mediterranean
The Mediterranean racials came to India from South-West Asia. They are divided into 3 groups. It is believed that they emigrated during the third and second millennium BC.
This race contributed greatly to the physical composition of the peoples of India and their culture. They brought earlier forms of Austro-Asian languages and are supposed to be the bearers of the oldest form of Hinduism in India.
Palaeo-Mediterranean first to arrive and their physical characteristics include medium height, dark skin, and long head. Today, they constitute the majority of the population of southern India.
b) The Mediterranean
They built the Indus Valley civilization. Today, they constitute the bulk of the lower castes throughout northern India.
c) Oriental Mediterranean
These people came much later. Their distribution is limited to Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
This group of races is characterized by a broadhead. Corgis and Parsis are representative of this group. This race is subdivided into 3 major groups according to the route, they follow to enter India; Alpinoids, Dinarics, and Armenoids.
Brachycephals group of races is characterized by a broadhead. Mainly Corgis and Parsis are representative of this group.
They are divided into 3 main groups, they entered India through these routes.
The alpinoids arrived in India through Balochistan, Sindh, Kathiawar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.
They followed through Ganga Valley and its delta to make a livelihood in India.
Here they entered India through a third way from Chitral, Gilgit, Kashmir, and Nepal.
6) The Nordics
They are the last to come to India from the North-West around the 2nd millennium BC and these people speak Aryan language.
- Long stature
- Well-built body
- Long forehead and face
- Pronounced chin
- Very narrow
- Straight and high nose
- Golden hair
- Blue eyes
They occupied the northwest of India and spread to the different parts of Punjab and the west of Uttar Pradesh and there were belong to the upper castes of Northern India. They introduced Sanskrit to our country.
Also, read the article on Floods in India
In conclusion, it is very difficult to say specifically that the Indians belong to a particular race because India has faced many foreign invasions from historical times and its spread is so great that we cannot relate India to any race, language or religion basis. That is why it is so unique in the entire world.