51. Vinoba Bhave (1895-1982)
The early education of Vinoba Bhave was in Baroda. Later, he studied in Varanasi. He was mainly interested in the philosophical literature. He joined Sabarmati Ashram and became one of Mahatma Gandhi’s closest associates.
Vinoba Bhave was a great fighter of freedom. He actively participated in the ‘Nagpur Salt Satyagraha’, the ‘Dandi March’, and the ‘Temple Entry Movement’ in Kerala. He was chosen by Gandhi as the first Satyagrahi of the individual civil disobedience movement.
Vinoba Bhave died on 15th November 1982, at the age of 87 years. He was a spiritual visionary whose spirituality had a pragmatic attitude and a deep concern for the disadvantaged.
He is best known for the “Bhoodan Movement”. He also directed the “Sarvodaya movement”. His contribution to the history of the non-violent movement is still important.
Vinoba Bhave was an academic scholar. I knew eighteen languages. He has written several books of international renown.
In 1958, Vinoba was the first recipient of the Ramon Magsaysay International Award for Community Leadership. He received the “Bharat Ratna” award.
52. Matangini Hazra (1870-1942)
Matangini Hazra was a freedom fighter and a martyr of British bullets. In paintings depicting the struggle for freedom, one often sees an old woman with white hair, carrying the Indian flag and leading a crowd of people.
However, at the end of her life, she felt the call to fight for independence so much that she repeatedly challenged the authority of the British Raj in her name, to put an end to his life for the cause.
Matangini Maity was born in a poor peasant family from a small village in Hogla, Tamluk, in the district of Midnapore, in West Bengal.
When she became a widow at the age of 18, she returned to live with her father, but later moved to a cabin near her husband’s former home.
On January 26, 1932, known as Independence Day during the struggle for freedom, a procession was organized in his village, in which mainly men participated.
In 1933, Sir John Anderson, then governor of Bengal, went to Tamluk to speak in front of a well-filtered meeting, but despite security, Matangini managed to organize a demonstration with the black flag in front of the platform.
She was sentenced to six months of rigorous prison, which is not a small burden for a woman her age. This earned him the nickname “Gandhi Buri” or “Granny Gandhi” in Midnapore.
On September 29, 1942, he asked local management to allow him to conduct a procession to capture the Tamluk court and police station, but her request was rejected because of her age.
Their luck came when, in the chaos, the villagers ordered the villagers to stop holding the bayonet. The bullets followed quickly and this brave 72-year-old woman died with the words “Vande Mataram” on her lips, holding the Indian flag.
53. Begum Hazrat Mahal (1820-1879)
Begum Hazrat Mahal married Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. She was also known as Begum of Awadh. When her husband was exiled to Calcutta (now Kolkata), she herself handled the affairs of Awadh State.
During the first Indian War of Independence in 1857-58, Begum Hazrat Mahal led a team of people who supported him in the revolt against the British.
She managed to take over the state of Lucknow and take control of it. Birjis Qadr was the son, she made him the king of Awadh. To learn the full story of the life of Begum Hazrat Mahal, read on.
Later, British forces took Lucknow and a substantial part of Awadh and Begum had to withdraw. She refused to accept any kind of favors and subsidies offered by the British rulers.
She used all her forces to liberate the Awadh State from the clutches of the British Raj authorities. Finally, she took refuge in an asylum in Nepal, where she died in 1879.
To emphasize her tireless efforts in the struggle for freedom of the country, the government of India issued a stamp on 10th May 1984.
54. Senapati Bapat (1880-1967)
The freedom fight of Senapati Bapat was not to use violence in the struggle, or how the new India should be governed. His goal in life was to see a free India by all possible means.
Bapat was educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, after losing a scholarship he had received from the British government for expressing his anti-British views at a meeting of the Independent Labor Party.
With this knowledge, he planned to join other revolutionaries to use it against the British government, not to kill innocent victims, but to draw attention to the cause of freedom.
Subsequently, his goal went from overthrowing the government to educating the masses about a foreign government. The British government has reached it after receiving information from one of his friends about his place of residence.
His last trip to the prison was the refusal to speak at a public rally organized by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose. After Independence, he was very active in political life. He died on 28th November 1967, at the age of 87 years.
55. Garimella Satyanarayana (1893-1952)
He influenced and mobilized the people of Andhra against the British Raj with his patriotic songs and writings, for which he was repeatedly imprisoned by the British administration.
Garimella Satyanarayana was born in 1893 into a poor family in the village of Gonepadu, near Priya Agraharam, in Narasannapeta Taluk, Srikakulam district.
Satyanarayana is identified by her famous song “మాకొద్దీ తెల్ల దొరతనం” (we do not need this white rule). This particular song was popular in the homes of Andhra Pradesh during the independence movement of India.
He was helped by a kind lawyer, named Kannepalli Narasimha Rao, to finish his studies (BA).
Meanwhile, he wrote his famous song Maakoddee Telladoratanamu for which he was imprisoned in 1922 for a year. After leaving prison, he continued his participation in the movement singing songs in villages.
56. Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (1887-1971)
Before joining the National Congress of India, he was attracted to the revolutionary group. In 1937 he was appointed Minister of the Interior in Bombay. He played a valuable role in conducting business related to the Quit India movement.
He was also elected to the Constituent Assembly. Munshi held various management positions in public administration.
In 1948 he was appointed a general agent of the government of Hyderabad and was assigned a crucial responsibility for the merger of the State of Hyderabad and the Union of India.
In 1952, he held the position of Minister of Food at the center. In 1960, he joined the Swatantra party.
Mr. M. Munshi was a renowned writer, writer, and social reformer. In 1938 he founded Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, a trust that manages various educational institutions and publishes books on Indian culture.
His name is also associated with Sahitya Samsad, Gujarati Sahitya Samsad, and Hindi Sahitya Sarnmelan. He has published several magazines and magazines such as Bhargava, Gujarat, Social Welfare and the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s Journal.
His notable writings include I Follow the Mahatma, The Creative Art of Life, Akhand Hindustan and Pilgrimage to Freedom.
57. Tiruppur Kumaran (1904-1932)
Kumaran, also known as Tiruppur Kumaran was an Indian revolutionary who participated in the Indian independence movement. Kumaran was born in Chennimalai in the presidency of Madras, in British India. He founded the Desa Bandhu Youth Association and led demonstrations against the British.
He died as a result of a police attack on the banks of the Noyyal River in Tiruppur during a demonstration against the British government on January 11, 1932.
At the time of his death, he carried the Indian national flag banned by the British.
The Indian Post issued a commemorative stamp in October 2004 on the occasion of his 100th birthday. A statue was erected in Tirupur in his honor, which often serves as a meeting place for public demonstrations.
58. Bhikaji Cama (1861-1936)
Bhikaji Cama, also known as Madame Cama, was a remarkable woman with great courage, courage, integrity, perseverance, and a passion for freedom.
Bhikhaji Cama was a pioneer among those who martyred their lives for the freedom of India and was considered the mother of the Indian Revolution.
Cama was born on 24th September 1861, in a wealthy family in Bombay. She married a British lawyer, Rustom Cama, in 1885, but, unfortunately, they were separated and engaged in various social activities.
In 1896, the presidency of Bombay was severely affected by the plague. The nationalist and social worker, Cama voluntarily worked for the victims of the plague and ended up being trapped by the disease. For some time she worked as a private secretary to Dadabhai Navaroji, a great Indian leader.
She constantly made people aware of the importance of the liberation of the British government. The British dissatisfied with his popularity invented a murder, but fortunately, Cama learned of the murder and fled to France.
In France, she made her home a secret refuge for revolutionaries around the world. In return, the British exiled Cama from their homeland.
In 1905, Cama and her friends designed the first tricolor flag of India with green stripes, saffron and red with the immortal words – Vanda Matram. Madame Cama raised this flag on 22nd August 1907, for the independence of India at the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart, Germany.
After 35 years of struggle for Indian independence from foreign lands, she returned to India and died on August 13, 1936.
59. Tipu Sultan (1750-1799)
Tipu Sultan was rightly called the Mysore Tiger. Bravely, he fought against great difficulties. The greatest ambition of his life was to expel the British from India. For this ideal, he sacrificed his life and his kingdom.
Born in 1750, Tipu succeeded his father Hyder Ali in late 1782. The Second Carnatic War was in progress and Tipu was thirty. But he had already had considerable experience of war with his father.
I loved the fast movement and the unexpected attack in the battle. He was still in the saddle, almost a copy of Napoleon for whom he had great admiration. Contact was established among Napolean and Tipu Sultan.
When Napoleon arrived in Egypt, it was in response to Tipu Sultan, Tipu himself is recognized as the Napoleon of India.
Tipu has led to many bloody battles with the British. He sent an embassy to Paris to ask for help from France. The French in their service formed the Revolutionary Club, the first of its kind in India. Tipu himself attended to him.
The French revolutionaries called him Citizen Sipou. I was in regular contact with Pondicherry, French India.
He sent a mission to Mauritius in search of French recruits. The governor of Mauritius invited the French to join Tipu to expel the British from India. The proclamation of Mauritius and the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon baffled the British.
The British sent an ultimatum to Tipu and launched an unjust war in which Tipu died sword in hand on May 2, 1799. The British failed him in his struggle for Indian independence.
60. Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928)
Lala Lajpat Rai was born in a small town in 1865. He liked literature and politics, he was a great fighter for freedom. Although he was not born great, he achieved greatness by dint of patriotism.
He began his career as a lawyer. He joined the freedom movement after abandoning his practice under the influence of Gandhiji.
He was a great social reformer and a strong supporter of the mission of Arya Samaj. It served the cause of education and the raising of untouchables and the education of women.
He was the founder of several educational institutions. He was a great speaker. His book “Unhappy India” showed his power pen.
He was a great critic of the British government. He was deported to Burma in 1907. Upon his return, he joined the non-cooperation movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
He has been imprisoned several times. The Congress has decided to boycott the Simon Commission. When he was leading a demonstration in Lahore, he was beaten several times when the police resorted to the charges.
He said that every blow on his body would be a highlight at Coffin of the British Empire. As a result of these blows, he died three weeks later. The whole country has sunk in pain. Violent demonstrations took place throughout the country.
It was dedicated to religion, love of the country, and faith in God. He was a brave man. His death was a blow to the movement of freedom. Everyone respected him for his courage and sacrifice.
His heart was full of kindness and sympathy for all human beings. He was truly a patriot and a great nationalist.